Workplace Violence, 1992-96   
Bureau of Justice Statistics
Special Report
July 1998, NCJ 168634
By Greg Warchol, Ph.D.
BJS Statistician
Data from the National Crime Victimization Surveys (NCVS) for 1992-96 indicate that during each year U.S. residents experienced more than 2 million violent victimizations while they were working or on duty.  The most common type of workplace violent crime was simple assault with an estimated average of 1.5 million victimizations occurring each year.  While at work U.S. residents also suffered 395,000 aggravated assaults, 51,000 rapes and sexual assaults, 84,000 robberies, and 1,000 homicides. 
Figure:  Selected occupations with a larger number of violent victimizations
Average annual number of violent victimizations in the workplace, 1992-96
Retail sales                 292482
Law enforcement       240480
Teaching                      138124
Medical                        133012
Mental health                 80711
Transportation               73894
Private security             61790
* Each year between 1992 and 1996, more than 2 million U.S. residents were victims of a violent crime while they were at work or on duty.
* More than 1,000 workplace homicides occurred annually. 
* The most common type of workplace victimization was simple assault with an estimated 1.4 million occurring each year.  U.S. residents also suffered 51,000 rapes and sexual assaults and about 84,000 robberies while they were at work.
* Annually, more than 230,000 police officers became victims of a nonfatal violent crime while they were working or on duty.
* About 40% of victims of nonfatal violence in the workplace reported that they knew their offenders.
* Women were more likely than men to be victimized by someone they knew.
* Approximately 12% of the nonfatal violent workplace crimes resulted in an injury to the victim.  Of those injured, about half received medical treatment.
* Intimates (current and former spouses, boyfriends, and girlfriends) were identified by the victims as the perpetrators of about 1% of all workplace violent crime.   
Workplace violence
In this report workplace violence is defined as violent acts against a person at work or on duty, including physical assaults (rape and sexual assault and aggravated and simple assault) and robbery.  Attempts are included with completed victimizations. (See Definitions on pages 7-8 for explanations of each offense.) The phrases at work and on duty are used synonymously for the term workplace.  
While this report is mainly concerned with nonfatal violence as measured by the NCVS, data from the Bureau of Labor Statistics and the FBI's Uniform Crime Reports (UCR) are included as a supplement to describe the nature and scope of workplace homicide.  UCR data on commercial robberies are also included. Unless otherwise noted as including homicide, all tables only describe nonfatal workplace violence.
The amount and nature of violent crime in the workplace
Each year from 1992 to 1996, more than 2 million U.S. residents experienced a violent crime victimization while they were working or on duty (table 1).  The most common type of victimization was assault, with an estimated 1.5 million simple assaults and 396,000 aggravated assaults reported annually.  Each year there were 84,000 robberies, about 51,000 rapes or sexual assaults, and more than 1,000 workplace homicides.
Table 1.  Victims of violence in the workplace, 1992-96
                                             Victimization in the workplace         
                    All victimizations       Annual average Percent                     Annual average Percent
Total                                    2010800     100.0                                 10868900     100.0
Homicide*                          1023               0.05                               22568                 0.2
Rape and sexual assault   50500          2.5                                    466900             4.3
Robbery                              83700           4.2                                   1274500          11.7
Aggravated assault          395500         19.7                                  2364600          21.7
Simple assault                    1480000     73.6                                   6740300           62.0
*Homicide data from the FBI's UCR include murder and nonnegligent manslaughter.
Victim characteristics 
Among people victimized while working or on duty, male victims outnumbered females by about 2 to 1 (table 2). Nearly 9 in 10 of victims of workplace violence were white. Fewer than 10% of the workplace violence victims were black.  About 70% of the victims were between ages 25 and 49, and fewer than 10% of the victims were over age 50.
Table 2.  Characteristic of workplace violence victims, 1992-96
Victim characteristic   Percent
Total              100.0
Male                66.8
Female             33.2
White               88.6
Black                  8.9
Other                  2.5
Hispanic             6.6
Non-Hispanic    92.1
12 to 17               2.4
18 to 24             17.9
25 to 34             32.9
35 to 49             37
50 to 59                7.2
60 to 64                1.5
65 or older            1.1
*Ethnicity was unknown for 1.3% of victims of workplace violence.
While females made up the majority of rape/sexual assault victims (83%), males were more likely than females to be victims of robbery and simple and aggravated assault.
                 Rape/                     Assault       
                 Sexual       Rob-     Aggra-
                 assault       bery      vated       Simple
Male        16.7%      72.0%      74.4%      66.1%   
Female      83.3        28.0         25.6         33.9   
More than half of the violent crime victimizations happened to individuals who worked for a private employer (table 3).  While government employees make up approximately 16% of the U.S. workforce, about 37% of the victims of workplace violence were employed by a Federal, State, or county government organization.
Annually about 430,000 of the workplace violence victims identifying their occupation stated they were employed by a government law enforcement agency or private security organization (table 4). Among these, an estimated 234,000 police officers and 71,100 private security guards were victims of workplace violent crime each year.  The victimization of law enforcement officers accounts for the over representation of government employees as workplace violence victims.
Table 3. Employers of workplace violence victims, 1992-96
                  Victims of violence in the workplace
                                             Number*    Percent
Private employer                 1127800     56.1
State/local government      677600      33.7
Self-employed                    134500        6.7
Federal Government             62900        3.1
Not ascertained                     35100        0.3
*Annual average, 1992-96.
Table 4. Occupations of victims of nonfatal workplace violence, 1992-96
                       Victims of workplace nonfatal violence
                                Annual     Number per
 Occupation             average    1,000 workers
Total/a                   2009400         14.8
Physicians                10000         15.7
Nurses                      69500         24.8
Technician                24500         21.4
Other                        56800         10.7
Mental health
Professional              50300         79.5
Custodial                     8700          63.3
Other                         43500          64.0
Preschool/b                 2400          3.6
Elementary                 35400         16.0
Junior high                 47300         57.4
High school                33300         28.9
College/university        6600          2.5
Technical/industrial/b     400          4.4
Special education          9000         40.7
Other                            14400         10.1
Law enforcement
Police                        234200        306.0
Private security          71100         117.3
Corrections officer   58300         217.8
Other                           67600           61.5
Retail sales
  liquor store               61500           68.4
Gas station                  15500           79.1
Bar                               26400           91.3
Other                         228200           17.5
Taxi driver                  16100         183.8
Bus driver                   17200           45.0
Other                           43200           10.0
Other/unspecified    758000             8.2
Note:  Rates are calculated using population estimates from the NCVS for occupation, 1992-96.  
Detail may not add to total because of rounding. 
a/The total for specified occupations was 1,251,400, with 29.4 victims of workplace violence per 1,000 workers.
b/Fewer than 10 sample cases.
Annually, 330,000 retail sales workers became victims of workplace violence. These included an estimated 61,000 convenience/liquor store clerks and 26,000 bartenders.  More than 160,000 workers in the medical occupations including an estimated 70,000 nurses, 24,000 technicians, and about 10,000 physicians were victimized each year.
Teachers accounted for about 149,000 of all workplace victimizations each year.  An estimated 33,000 high school, 35,000 elementary, and 47,000 junior high/middle school teachers were victims of a violent crime while working or on duty. 
Of the occupations examined, law enforcement had the highest rates of workplace violence while teaching had the lowest. Police officers experienced 306 victimizations for every 1,000 officers; corrections officers in prisons or jails, 218 per 1,000.  College or university teaching was the occupation with the lowest rate of violence at work:  2.5 per 1,000 teachers.
How often victims were assaulted at work was related to their occupation (table 5).  Public law enforcement and private security workers experienced the most workplace assaults each year -- an estimated 327,000 simple assaults and nearly 100,000 aggravated assaults.  Transportation workers suffered the fewest assaults -- an estimated 45,000 simple assaults and 17,000 aggravated assaults.
Table 5.  Workplace assaults, by occupation, 1992-96
Average annual number of assaults           Simple Aggravated
Medical                  137500                                         12800
Teaching                 126500                                        16800
Mental health           79000                                        15300
Law enforcement    326900                                       98500
Transportation          45200                                       17400
Retail sales             215700                                         90700
Assaults on police
Both the NCVS and the UCR recorded recent decreases in the number of nonfatal assaults on police (figure 1).  In 1996 police officers reported to the NCVS about 152,000 assaults,  and agencies reported 47,000 such assaults to the UCR.  
Figure 1  Number of assaults on police officers
               UCR           NCVS
1992      81252          263257
1993      66975          261601
1994      64912          237815
1995      56686          227518
1996      46695          176096
The higher levels in the NCVS data are partially attributable to the survey's recording assaults that victimized officers did not report to their superiors.  These were possibly the less serious assaults in which officers were not injured:  87% of all assaults did not result in an injury.  The difference between the UCR and the NCVS data is less distinct when comparing assaults on police officers resulting in injury -- victimizations that officers may be more prone to report to their superiors.
     Annual average number of assaults injuring police officers  
NCVS        30,304
UCR          21,604
Response to workplace violence
When confronted by the offender, about 27% of the workplace violence victims did not resist (table 6).  The most common reaction of victims was   nonconfrontational actions such as trying to stall, persuade, or bargain with the offender, or fleeing or hiding from the offender.  Fewer than 4% of the victims resisted with a weapon.
Table 6.  Reactions to the violence by victims in the workplace, 1992-96
Reaction                             Percent
Total                                     100.0
Offered no resistance         27.3
Non-confrontational act     29.6
Unarmed confrontation      20.9
Resisted with--
Firearm                                  1.4
Other actions/weapons         1.7
Other                                    19.1
Unknown                                0.1
Note:  Detail may not add to total because of rounding.
Among workplace violence victims who took some type of self-protective action, more than 80% stated that they thought it helped the situation.
Value of response      Percent of victims
   Total                            100.0%
Helped situation               84.1
Did not help                      12.4
Don't know                          3.5
Injury from workplace violence
As with street crime, workplace violence can result in injured victims. Twelve percent of all victims of workplace violence reported having been physically injured.
Victim injury     Total  Males   Females
Injured              12.0% 11.3%   13.2%
Uninjured         88.0      88.7       86.8
Victims of certain types of violent crime, however, sustained a slightly, though not statistically significant, higher incidence of injury.  Victims of rape or sexual assault suffered additional injury in 19% of the reported victimizations (table 7).  About 17% of victims of robbery or aggravated assault were injured, compared to 10% of victims of simple assault.
Table 7.  Injured victims of workplace violence, by type of offense, 1992-96
                  Percent of victims of workplace violence
Injury to        Rape/Sexual   Aggravated                Simple 
victims          assault            Robbery   assault      assault
Injured              19.3              17.4           17.3        10
Uninjured         80.7            82.6           82.7        90
About 6% of all workplace crimes resulted in the victim being injured and receiving medical treatment -- either at the scene or at a medical facility.
Treatment                           Percent
Total                                     100.0% 
Not injured                              88.0
Injured but not treated               6.1
Treated at the scene                   2.3
Treated at a medical facility      3.6
Offense and offender characteristics
More than 60% of the workplace violent victimizations occurred during daylight hours.
Time of occurrence      Percent   
Total                            100.0%
Day                                62.3
Night                             36.2
Don't know                     1.4
The majority of workplace violence incidents (56%) happened to individuals working in cities.  Individuals working in rural parts of the country accounted for about 11% of the incidents of violence at work.
Location             Percent
Total                  100.0%
City                     56.5
Suburb                14.6
Rural                   10.8
More than one    17.7
Not ascertained      .4
The relationship between the victim and the offender may be of special interest with crime that occurs in the workplace.  In addition to strangers, workplace crime has been in part attributed to disgruntled current or former employees and domestic disputes involving intimates (current and former spouses, boyfriends and girlfriends).
The majority of all workplace violent crime was committed by a stranger to the victim (table 8).  A higher percentage of men (66%) than women (47%) were victimized by a stranger. Intimates were identified as the perpetrators in fewer than 1% of all incidents of workplace violence.  Female victims reported that their attackers were intimates in about 2% of all offenses.  Female victims were also more likely than male victims to report that their attackers were acquaintances (46%, compared to 30%). 
Table 8.  Victim-offender relationship of victims of workplace violence, 1992-96
Relationship of Percent of workplace violence victims 
offender to victim     Total    Male      Female
Total                          100        100        100
Intimate                       0.9        0.2*       2.2
Other relative              0.5        0.2*       1.0
Acquaintance            35.3      29.9       46.2
Stranger                     59.6      65.9      47.0
Unknown                     3.6        3.7        3.5
Note:  Detail may not add to totals because of rounding.
*Fewer than 10 sample cases.
When asked about the offenders, over 84% of workplace violence victims stated that the incident involved only one offender.
Number of offenders   Percent
1                                   84.7%
2                                     6.2
3                                     2.4
4 or more                       3.5
Not ascertained             3.1
Forty-three percent of the robberies were committed by more than one offender (table 9).  About 11% of the rapes and 9% of the simple assaults involved multiple offenders.
Table 9.  Number of workplace violence offenders, by type of crime, 1992-9
                 Annual average percent of victims of workplace violence
Number of         Rape/Sexual       Aggravated                        Simple   
Offenders         assault                  Robbery   assault            assault
Total                  100                                100         100                    100
1                        85.1                                53.8        77.1               88.2
More than 1      10.9                               43.0        19.0                    8.9
Not ascertained   4.0                               3.1           3.9                   2.9
Note:  Detail may not add to totals because of rounding.
Those who committed workplace violence were predominately male, white, and older than 21 (table 10).  Among workplace crimes for which victims reported just one perpetrator, more than 80% of the offenders were males, 58% were white, and 47% were over age 30. 
Table 10.  Characteristic of offenders who committed workplace violence, 1992-96
                        Percent of victims 
Characteristic of of workplace violence 
offender           by lone offenders
Male                          82.9
Female                      14.1
Unknown                    2.9
White                       58.4
Black                       29.0
Other                          8.1
Not ascertained         4.4
Under 12                  1.9
12 to 17                  10.0
18 to 20                    6.6
21 to 29                  29.4
30 or older             47.0
Not ascertained       5.1
About 20% of violent incidents in the workplace involved an armed offender (table 11).  A firearm was used in fewer than 10% of all workplace violent crimes.  The likelihood of a victim's being threatened or injured by an armed offender reflected the vulnerability of the victim's occupation (table 12).  One in three incidents of violence against transportation workers were committed by an offender who had a gun, knife, or other weapon.  One in four retail sales workers reported that the offender was armed during the incidents they experienced.  Of those incidents examined, medical care workers faced an armed offender in 7% of violent crimes. 
Table 11.  Weapons present in workplace violence, 1992-96
                          Percent of 
Type of weapon           violent victimizations  
present                                 in the workplace
None                                   73.4
Unknown                              6.2
Some type                          20.4
Firearm                                  7.5
Knife                                     6.0
Club, bottle, stick, or other object used 
   as a weapon                      6.0
Unknown type                     1.0
Note:  Detail may not add to totals because of rounding.
Table 12.  Whether the offender in workplace violence was armed, by occupation of the victim, 1992-96
               Percent of violent victimizations in the workplace was armed
Whether                                                  Law                   Trans-
the offender                  Mental             enforce-             porta- 
         Medical health   Teaching          ment      Retail   tion       Other
Armed             7.2             14.9          11.9       21.5        26.6    34.3     20.6
Unarmed      89.2             83.5          82.4       75.1        65.6    55.3     71.9
Unknown        3.5                1.6*            5.7         3.4          7.9     10.4      7.6
*Fewer than 10 sample cases.
Fewer than half of all nonfatal violent workplace crimes were reported to the police (table 13).  Male victims (47%) were more likely than female victims (38%) to report the offense to the police. About 25% of the rapes and sexual assaults were reported to the police while nearly 73% of the robberies were reported.  An injured victim was more likely than an uninjured victim to report the crime to the police.  Sixty percent of the injured victims, but 42% of the uninjured, reported the offense to the police.  About 61% of the victimizations committed by an intimate of the victim (spouse/ex-spouse or boy/girlfriend) were reported to the police.
Table 13.  Reporting of workplace violence to the police, by sex of victim, offense, injury, and victim-offender relationship, 1992-96
                          Percent of violent crimes in the workplace
Workplace violence        reported to the police
All                                        44.2
Sex of victim
Male                                    47.0
Female                                 38.4
Rape                                    25.3
Robbery                              72.8
Aggravated assault           60.8
Simple assault                  39.2
Injury of victim
Injured                                60.0
Uninjured                           42.2
Victim-offender relationship
Intimate                             60.7
Stranger/acquaintance      44.0
When questioned about why they did not report the offense, workplace violence victims gave as their most common reason that they reported it to another official (29%).  This other official may have been a supervisor or the security personnel of the organization for which they worked.  Another 19% stated that the violence was not important enough to report to the police.
Reason for not reporting                   Percent of
workplace violence                               victims who
to the police                                           did not report
Reported to another official                 29.4%
Private or personal matter                     20.6
Not important enough                            18.9
Police could/would not do anything       5.1
Afraid of the offender                              1.8
Inconvenient                                              1.2
Do not know                                                .5
Other reason                                            20.5
No one reason more important                2.0
Of all workplace violence incidents reported to the police, 37% resulted in the eventual arrest or charging of an offender for the victimization between the time of the incident and the interview with the victim (table 14).
Table 14.  Whether offender in workplace violence was arrested, by offense, 1992-96
                    Percent of incidents reported to the police
 Outcome     All      Rape   Robbery Aggravated assault Simple assault
Arrested       37.4     30.0     22.8        44.1               36.5
Not arrested 57.3     64.7     68.7       48.4               59.3
Unknown        5.3       5.3        8.4          7.5                4.2
Figure 2: The number of violent victimizations in the workplace declined 21% from a peak of 2.2 million in 1994 to 1.7 million in 1996
Number of violent              victimizations in millions
1992     2.163879                     10.896
1993     2.077988                 10.53158
1994     2.182529                    11.0311
1995     1.894272                 10.02193
1996     1.730289                   9.125
The decrease in violent victimization in the workplace between 1994 and 1996 was similar to the 17% decline in violent crime overall during the period.
Workplace homicide
Data from the Bureau of Labor Statistics showed that homicide was the second leading cause of death in the workplace between 1992 and 1996 (figure 3) with more than 1,000 murders occurring each year. The work-place homicides accounted for about 1 of every 6 fatal occupational injuries. 
Figure 3 Homicide accounts for about 17% of all deaths in the workplace
         Fatal accidents  Homicide
1992            6217          1044
1993            6331          1074
1994            6632          1080
1995            6275          1036
1996            6112             912
Source:  Bureau of Labor Statistics, 1992-96
Firearms were used to commit more than 80 percent of all workplace homicides between 1992 and 1996. About 20 percent of the homicides were the result of bombings, stabbings, or beatings.  This figure includes the deaths of employees among the 168 who died in the 1995 bombing of the Murrah Federal Building in Oklahoma City.  
                 Annual average percent of workplace homicides,
Weapon              1992-96                           
Firearm                    83.7%
Bomb or other         11.4
Knife                           7.8
Source:  Bureau of Labor Statistics, Fatal Occupational Injuries by Event or Exposure, 1992-96.
From 1993 to 1996 males were the majority of workplace homicide victims (table 15).  Each year an average of 710 whites and 191blacks were murdered while working.  About 143 workplace homicide victims each year were of Hispanic origin.  Most workplace homicide victims were between ages 25 and 44.
Table 15.  Characteristics of workplace homicide victims, 1993-96 
Selected characteristic of victims
of workplace homicide                       Annual average number
Male                                                                 821
Female                                                             196
White                                                               710
Black                                                                 191
American Indian, Alaska 
   Native, Asian, or Pacific Islander                 106
Other                                                                    60
Hispanic                                                             143
Younger than age 20                                           30
20-24                                                                    85
25-34                                                                   261
35-44                                                                   264
45-54                                                                   198
55-64                                                                   115
Age 65 or older                                                     63
Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics, Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries, 1993-96
Between 1993 and 1996 most workplace homicides -- an average of nearly 760 each year -- were the result of a robbery (figure 4).  About 100 workplace homicides a year were attributed to the victim's coworkers or customers.  Personal acquaintances of homicide victims were identified as perpetrators in about 50 workplace murders each year.
Figure 4  Each year from 1993 to 1996 nearly 800 workplace homicides were the result of a robbery 
Victim and circumstance of homicide      Average annual number
Employees in robberies/other crimes                 757
Employees by co-workers/customers                 112
Police in the line of duty                                        56
Security guards in the line of duty                          48
Employees by personal acquaintances                    45
Source:  Bureau of Labor Statistics, Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries, 1993-96
Of select occupations sales workers experienced the highest number of workplace homicides -- an average of 327 each year from 1993 to 1996 (figure 5).  Annually, 74 taxi drivers and chauffeurs were murdered while working or on duty.  About 70 law enforcement officers were killed in the line of duty each year. 
Figure 5:   Most workplace homicide victims were employed in retail sales
Occupation of victim                 Average annual number
Sales                                                  327
Executive/manager                           154
Law enforcement                                69
Security guard                                      60
Taxi driver/chauffeur                           74
Truck driver*                                        25
*Based on 1993 and 1995-96.
Source:  Bureau of Labor Statistics, Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries, 1993-96 
Except as noted, the data for this report come from the 1992 to 1996 National Crime Victimization Surveys (NCVS).  The NCVS is an annual survey of about 46,000 households and 95,000 individuals age 12 or older.  It obtains information about crimes, including those not reported to the police, from a continuous, nationally representative sample of households in the United States.
Respondents who reported that they were a victim of a violent crime while working or on duty represent the sample for this report.  This sample does not include those crime victims who stated that they were on their way to or from work.  Customers affected by violence at a workplace also were not included in the analysis.  Because the NCVS does not measure murder, the homicide data included in this report were drawn from the FBI's Uniform Crime Reports and the Bureau of Labor Statistics.  While some trends are presented, most data are presented in the aggregate.  Using aggregate data from 5 years for this report makes possible more reliable estimates. 
The estimates in this report are not directly comparable to those in Violence and Theft in the Workplace (BJS Crime Data Brief, NCJ 148199, July 1994).  The differences reflect changes in survey methodology introduced by the 1992 redesign of the NCVS.
Research prior to the redesign indicated that a substantial proportion of certain types of crimes were not recounted.  In general, the redesigned survey gives respondents additional cues to encourage recall of eligible crime events.  These changes achieved the intended effect of producing higher and more accurate estimates of violent crime than had resulted from the previously used procedures.  For a detailed explanation, see Effects of the Redesign on Victimization Estimates (BJS Technical Report, NCJ 164381, April 1997).
Aggravated assault:  Attack or attempted attack with a weapon, regardless of whether or not an injury occurred and attack without a weapon when serious injury occurs. 
Simple assault:  Attack without a weapon resulting either in no injury, minor injury, or in undetermined injury requiring less than 2 days of hospitalization. Also includes attempted assault without a weapon.
Robbery:  Completed or attempted theft, directly from a person, of property or cash by force or threat, with or without a weapon, and with or without injury. 
Rape:  Forced sexual intercourse including both psychological coercion as well as physical force. Includes attempted rapes, male as well as female victims, and both heterosexual and homosexual rape. 
Sexual assault:  A wide range of victimizations, separate from rape or attempted rape. These crimes include attacks or attempted attacks generally involving unwanted sexual contact between victim and offender. Sexual assault also includes verbal threats. 
Intimates:  Includes spouses, ex-spouses and current and former boyfriends and girlfriends. The relationship is defined by the respondent.
Acquaintances:  Includes friends, former friends, roommates or boarders, schoolmates, neighbors, someone at work, or some other known non-relative.
Relatives:  Includes parents and step-parents, children and stepchildren, siblings and other relatives. 
Stranger:  Someone not known to the victim.
Rounding of percentages
Percentages in the tables may not add to 100% because of rounding.
Computation of standard errors 
The results in this report were tested to determine if the observed differences between groups were statistically significant. 
The comparisons made in this report were tested to determine whether the observed differences between groups or over time were statistically significant.  Comparisons mentioned in the report passed a hypothesis test at the 0.05 level of statistical significane (or the 95-percent confidence level.)  This means that the estimated difference between comparisons was greater than twice the standard error of that difference.
The standard error calculations were made using statistical programs specifically developed for the NCVS by the U.S. Bureau of the Census. These programs take into account the complex sample design of the NCVS when calculating the generalized variance estimates.
Though 5 years of data are covered in this report, some estimates were based on relatively small numbers.  This is noted in tables where estimates are based on 10 or fewer sample cases. Because standard errors cannot be accurately computed for such estimates, it is not advisable to compare them to other estimates. Caution should also be used when comparing estimates not specifically mentioned in the text of this report. Large differences may not be statistically significant at even the 90-percent confidence level. 
Box: Determining occupation for the NCVS
The victim reported his or her job at the time of the victimization by answering question 138 on the NCVS Incident Report. 
Occupation Variable (No. 138)
Q. Which of the following best describes your job at the time of the incident?
Medical Profession
1. Physician
2. Nurse
3. Technician
4. Other 
Mental Health Service Field --
Are your duties --
5. Professional (social worker/psychiatrist)
6. Custodial care
7. Other
Teaching Profession --
Were you employed in a --
8. Preschool
9. Elementary
10. Junior high or middle school
11. High school
12. College or university
13. Technician or industrial school
14. Special education facility
15. Other
Law Enforcement or Security 
Field --
Were you employed as a--
16. Law enforcement officer
17. Prison or jail guard
18. Security guard
19. Other
Retail Sales--
Were you employed as a --
20. Convenience or liquor store clerk
21. Gas station attendant
22. Bartender
23. Other
Transportation Field --
Were you employed as a --
24. Bus driver
25. Taxi cab driver
26. Other
27. Something else
BJS.  Effects of the Redesign on Victimization Estimates, Technical Report, NCJ 164381, April 1997.
BJS.  Violence and Theft in the Workplace, Crime Data Brief, NCJ 148199, July 1994.
FBI.  Law Enforcement Officers Killed and Assaulted, 1994 and 1996.
FBI.  Crime in the United States 1996.
U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor.
Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries, 1993, 1994, 1995, and 1996.
U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, U. S. Department of Labor.
Fatal Occupational Injuries by Event or Exposure, 1992-96.
The Bureau of Justice Statistics is the statistical agency of the U.S. Department of Justice.  Jan M. Chaiken, Ph.D., is director.
BJS Special Reports address a specific topic in depth from one or more data sets that cover many topics.
Greg Warchol, Ph.D., wrote this report.  Cathy Maston provided statistical review.  Tom Hester produced and edited the report. Marilyn Marbrook, assisted by Jayne Robinson and Yvonne Boston, administered final production. 
June 1998, NCJ 168634
This report and its data are available on the Internet:
The National Archive of Criminal Justice Data can provide computer readable files from the National Crime Victimization Survey and the Uniform Crime Reports.  The archive can be accessed through the BJS Web site.
revised 7/28/98 th